Most western authors contend that the Renaissance emerged when Europeans studied Greek and Roman civilizations then developed new arts and sciences. These racist views hide or deny the massive effort to translate Arabic books to Latin, study them, and copy the Muslim civilization without giving appropriate credit to the “real” authors. Most Europeans had discovered the magnificent Muslim civilization during their crusades against the Muslims in Iberia and the Middle East.
The Qur’an, as the final word of God, anticipated many of the modern scientific discoveries which were beyond human imagination 14 centuries ago. The Muslim scientific revolution, which produced the renaissance that put Muslims at the top of the civilized world for 8 centuries, was a result of contemplating the clues in the Qur’an about the physical world.
The Muslim contributions are still evident today, 7 centuries after the destruction of the Muslim cultural centers in Asia by Genghis Khan and Hulagu, and 5 centuries after the destruction of the great Muslim cultural centers in Iberia by the Spaniards.
Arabic numerals, algebra, logarithms, and algorithms prove the West learned mathematics from the Muslims. al-Khawarizmi who died in 850 AD, introduced Algebra, the zero, negative numbers, algorithms (programs or software), and the decimal system to the West. One cannot imagine computers using Roman numerals. One cannot imagine the digital age without zeros.
Alchemy, amalgam, sugar, soap, alkali, and alcohol indicate the West learned chemistry from the Muslims. Many stars have Arabic names including Algol, Markeb, Deneb Algedi, Menkar, Ras Al Asad, Alphard, etc… Muslin (named after the city of Mosul, Iraq), Damask and Damascene (named after the city of Damascus, Syria, the oldest city in the world) indicate the West learned about fine clothing and fine art from the Muslims. More than 1700 words in the Dictionary are derived from Arabic words like admiral, cipher, tariff, check, lute, guitar, Marsala (Marsa ( harbor ) of Allah), and alcove indicate the Muslim influence on the West is extensive.
The first medical book ever printed in Europe in 1486 AD was the medical encyclopedia by Abu Bakr al-Razi (Rhazes) (The Worlds Greatest Physician In The Middle Ages who died in 932 AD). It was translated into Latin by Faraj Ibn Salem.
Pupil, cornea, abdomen, saphenous, nucha, ass, blind, basilic, cephalic, drug, natron, sherbet, syrup, talc, elixir, and camphor are derived from Arabic words.
During the dark age of Europe, monasteries ran hospitals where exorcism and prayers to patron saints were the main cures. Surgery was banned by the church to protect the monks from evil spirits.
The first real hospital and apothecary were opened in Baghdad in 805 AD by the Caliph Harun al-Rashid. In 931 AD, 869 physicians applied for licensing examination in Baghdad. Muslims had separate hospitals for men and women; and separate hospitals for mental, contagious and non-contagious diseases.
Muslim hospitals were teaching hospitals where physicians taught in the morning and treated patients in the afternoon. Music was played in the hospitals to soothe the patients and speed their recovery. Medications were added to syrups, juleps, and rose and orange blossom water. Anesthetics made from hemp were used to ease the pain.
Pharmacists were licensed after passing examinations by the State. Hospitals were supported by the State or by charitable endowments. Patients received treatment for free.
Muslims invented the ambulant clinic which was carried on camelback to provide medical services to prisoners, people in remote towns and villages without hospitals, and people afflicted with epidemics or natural disasters.
A census taken In 950 AD in the Muslim city of Qurtubah (now Cordoba or Cordova, Spain), which was one of the centers of the Muslim civilization in Europe, counted a population of 600,000, 90,000 businesses, a university for 20,000 students, 600 mosques, 300 public baths, 80 schools, 70 public libraries, and 50 hospitals.
Muslims had precise weights and measures. Gold coins made 10 centuries ago had a weight variance if 1/3000th of a gram. Muslims determined that the earth was spherical and invented spherical geometry, the clock pendulum, the magnetic compass, the art of navigation and the astrolabe. Al-Battani calculated the duration of the solar year within 2 minutes of the current estimate.
Muslims introduced Europeans to postal service, gold coins, sophisticated cuisine, tulips, perfumes, fruits, vegetables, hospitals, public (Turkish) baths, windmills, waterwheels, troubadours, musical instruments, cavalry, artillery, heraldry, and chivalry. There is an effort underway to restore one of the Muslim public baths in Granada to its former glory.
During the 8 centuries when Muslims ruled the civilized world, Muslim scientists compiled accomplishments that are still impressive by today’s standards. The list of scientists includes: Jabir Ibn Hayyan (Geber) who died in 808 AD, was the father of modern chemistry; Ibn Firnas, who died in 888 AD, constructed the first man-powered flying machine; Abu Bakr al-Razi (Rhazes) who died in 932 AD, was the world’s greatest physician in the middle ages; al-Idrisi who died in 932 AD, prepared the world’s first globe; Al-Buzajani who died in 998 AD, discovered the wobble in the moon’s orbit; Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi ( Albucasis ) who died in 1013 AD, was the author of the first surgery book ; al-Maqdisi who died in 1101 AD, produced the first map in colors; Omar al-Khayyam, who died in 1131 AD, was a Sufi poet and a mathematician who reformed the Indian calendar with higher accuracy than the 1582 AD Gregorian calendar; Ibn Sina (Avicenna), who died in 1037 AD wrote the world’s medical authority until the 19th Century; Ibn al-Haitham, who died in 1039 AD, was the Father Of Modern Optics, a great scientist and Engineer who formulated the laws of reflection and refraction and explained the rainbow phenomenon; Ibn Rushd (Averroes) who died in 1198 AD, was a philosopher, physician, Chief Justice, Minister, and discovered the sunspots; Fakhruddin Al-Razi who died in 1209 AD, determined that the stars were moving and varied in distance from the earth; Ibn al-Nafis, who died in 1288 AD, discovered the blood circulation; al-Jaldaki who died in 1360 AD, produced pure gold ; Ibn Khaldun who died in 1406 AD, was the real father of sociology.
Muslim Law (Shari’ah) was the world’s most sophisticated legal system through the 15th century. Napoleon returned to France from Egypt with a copy of Shari’ah which influenced Napoleonic Law.
The collapse of the Muslim civilization toward the end of the 15th century, after endless Crusades ended 8 centuries of Muslim scholarship when Muslims ruled the civilized world. This put the Muslims under colonial imperialism determined to keep them divided, poor, and uneducated so they may supply their conquerors with cheap raw materials, labor, and open unregulated markets.